Soitenly
Welcome, Guest. Please login or register.

Author Topic: Laurel and Hardy - Pre-team short reviews  (Read 1106 times)

0 Members and 1 Guest are viewing this topic.

Offline metaldams

  • Global Moderator
  • Egghead
  • ******
  • Posts: 6,037
  • Gender: Male
  • Sugar Daddy in waiting
    • View Profile
Laurel and Hardy - Pre-team short reviews
« on: January 24, 2015, 02:19:57 PM »
  • Publish
  •       Laurel and Hardy made several early silent shorts where they both appeared, but don't really qualify as Laurel and Hardy films.  It was not until Leo McCarey recognized the chemistry they had together on the screen and decided to officially team Stan and Ollie together that they permanently became a team.  Below are films that can only be qualified as Laurel and Hardy films only because both men appear in them, they haven't really found themselves yet.

    THE LUCKY DOG (1921)

    https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=Q2j1chr3Jv0

          Historically important as it is the first film Stan and Ollie appear in together, but really a Stan Laurel solo film.  Stan Laurel made several solo films before teaming with Ollie and Ollie appeared as a heavy in several comedy shorts, but this is the only time they appeared together pre Hal Roach.  Their first scene together has Ollie trying to rob Stan, yet Stan gets away.  Later, Ollie and another nemesis of Stan's pliot revenge on Stan.  The best scene of the two together is Ollie failing to kill Stan close range with a gun.  In an absurd twist, Stan tries to help his killer Ollie work the gun properly - the two show good chemistry in this part.  Other than that, a few good Keaton like gags with a train, but the film is a jumbled mess story wise.  Lots of fast paced Sennett like stuff, which can get tiresome without coherent storytelling, a flaw of many silent comedies not done by the top tier comedians.

    5/10

    45 MINUTES FROM HOLLYWOOD (1926)

    https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=b2EXJEDhvDE

          The first film at Hal Roach Stan and Ollie both appear in, but they don't even share the same frame, never mind team up!  Really a Glenn Tryon film, a bland comedian with no personality.  The bicycle chase scene has some nice shots and the close ups of Ollie when the cat is in his clothes are a nice touch, but again, a jumbled mess that involves cross dressing and mistaken identity.  Not my favorite comic devices. 

    4/10

    SLIPPING WIVES (1927)

    https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=NrXTeZ18nUI

          Stan and Ollie get to work together best in a great fight scene where Ollie gets face planted on the ground and covered in white paint and another scene where Ollie has to force Stan to take a bath. Still, they are not a comedy team in this short.  A Priscilla Dean vehicle, she was a fading star at this point that Hal Roach used to try to get some name value while looking for a new star.  She is very pleasant to watch as she tries make her inattentive husband jealous by finding someone else to make love to her in front of him.  The man happens to be Stan Laurel, a paint salesman.  Ollie plays the butler, and Stan mistakes a family friend as the husband he's trying to make jealous.  When the real husband pays attention to Ms. Dean, that's when Stan gets most aggressive.  The comedy reminds me of something Charley Chase would do, and Stan's pantomime of Samson and Delilah is a highlight, no doubt influenced by Charlie Chaplin's classic pantomime of David and Goliath in THE PILGRIM.  Very entertaining overall.

    8/10

    LOVE 'EM AND WEEP (1927)

    https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=2bEZFhQTL2Q

          An inferior silent version of CHICKENS COME HOME (1931), but still not bad in its own right.  Stan Laurel and Mae Busch play the same roles as they will in the talking version, and the Oliver Hardy role is played by James Finlayson.  Oliver Hardy is wasted as a heavily disguised party guest in a do nothing role.  The song aspect works much better in the talking version.  I'd much rather hear Ollie sing with tension in the air when the other woman is on her way than quickly hint that James Finlayson has to sing while quickly skipping to other business.  Again, not bad on its own, I just know there's a better talking version of this I would rather watch nine times out of ten.  Not really a Laurel and Hardy film at all, just one of these things that shows up in filmographies because they are both in it.

    6/10

    WHY GIRLS LOVE SAILORS (1927)

    https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=XqRltVXVxZM

          Again, Stan and Ollie don't team much, having very little interaction together.  Ollie plays the first mate on a ship.  The captain of the ship steals Stan Laurel's girl away, so Stan dresses in drag, and makes his way through the boat as he tries to find his girl.  Anita Garvin and her gloriously expressive face (Can anybody show frustration better than her?), plays the captain's wife that catches her husband with Stan in drag.  Writing wise, a lame drag comedy that is notched up a few points by the charisma of the actors playing the roles.

    6/10

    WITH LOVE AND HISSES (1927)

    https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=nsXswrzcuRY

          Episodic army comedy where Stan and Ollie are not really a team, but they do get some good comic scenes together and show some chemistry.  The ending is absolutely hysterical, involving naked army men getting sprayed by skunks and stung by a swarm of bees as army inspection men are visiting the camp.  They hide their nudity by sticking their heads through a billboard depicting characters in a Cecille B. DeMille film, the billboard wrapped around their necks as they walk around.  Man, just writing about this makes me realize how strange this one is...oh, and they were naked because they were skinny dipping and their clothes accidentally caught fire.  Stan plays an interesting twist on the overdone drill sargent comedy stuff by having his feelings hurt by his superiors and acting like he won't talk to them.  One of the more memorable not quite but almost Laurel and Hardy films, a weird anomaly.

    8/10

    SAILORS, BEWARE! (1927)

    https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=fNf_q5wFBS0

          An important film.  While Stan and Ollie are enemies and not a team they do get a couple of great scenes together that show their chemistry.  The scene where they both jump rope with the girl at the same time is wonderful, and Hardy gets to pantomime his assertive nature with Stan at various points.  Also, lots of Hardy fourth wall breaking camera glazes and parts of Stan crying like a baby, so you feel like the characters of Laurel and Hardy are slowly being born.  This one also has Anita Garvin, one of my all time favorites.  The film itself to me is like MEN IN BLACK in that I like all the individual parts but it somehow doesn't gel into a cohesive whole as well as it should.  Still an important film overall for Laurel and Hardy.

    7/10

    NOW I'LL TELL ONE (1927)

    https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=YTGqkDOX__M

          Now here's a Charley Chase two reeler that was considered lost until about twenty years ago, and only the second reel survives.  Since I have been unable to hunt this one down on DVD, I've only seen a worn out three minutes of the surviving footage on YouTube.  Laurel and Hardy are both in this one, but not together.  Stan plays a lawyer and Ollie a cop.  Having barely seen it, I can't say much more.

    No rating

    FLYING ELEPHANTS (1927)

    https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=2CT-CtlqGII

          Strange short.  I guess at this point after SAILORS, BEWARE! and DO DETECTIVES THINK? it was established Stan Laurel and Oliver Hardy should be featured more in these All-Star comedies.  Well, they're certainly the two featured players here, but in separate roles with characters that don't meet until the last few minutes as they end up fighting over the same girl.  Stan's character here is a bit more effeminate than we've grown used to over the years, but there's one hysterical part where he tries to drag a pretty girl into his cave, only to have the pretty girl, for lack of better terminology, kick his ass.  The rest is passable hit 'em over the head with club caveman mating ritual stuff.  Another film that heavily features Stan Laurel and Oliver Hardy, but is not really a Laurel and Hardy film.  For you Stooge fans who need a good comparison, think of the way Moe was split from the team in the feature ROCKIN' IN THE ROCKIES.  That's kind of like what some of these early films feel like with Stan and Ollie.

    6/10

    SUGAR DADDIES (1927)

    https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=aDDOgsmJWv4

          The last film to feature Stan Laurel and Oliver Hardy where they are not a team, except they kind of sort of are by the end of this thing....along with Jim Finlayson.  Basically, Jim Finlayson is a rich guy who gets drunk the night before and gets married to a gold digger who wants $50,000.  Ollie is his Butler, Stan is his lawyer, and once it's in the papers that Finlayson is out the night before with 27 chorus girls, the gold digger and her brother and daughter chase Finlayson, Stan, and Ollie across town.  Most of the short revolves around Stan standing on top of a bent over Finlayson's back, covering both of them with a dress and wearing a women's wig to hide Finlayson, making Stan look like one woman.  Ollie is the apparent boyfriend.  The gold digging wife and family are onto the scheme and chase the three through a fun house as they continue to try and hide Finlayson.  A one gag film that any comedian can do, it nevertheless is done well and is continuously entertaining.

    7/10

    CALL OF THE CUCKOO (1927)

    https://m.youtube.com/watch?v=Io9pxut5W4A

          This is a Max Davidson comedy in which Laurel and Hardy, along with Charley Chase and James Finlayson, do a cameo as cuckoos, like the title implies. They only have a few brief scenes in the beginning and end, and I suppose the William Tell gag Stan and Ollie do is fun.  They don't get to do much else.  Max Davidson, as far as I can tell, is a comedian who does not have much character other than being a Jewish stereotype.  He does nothing particularly funny, with his destructive house being the star more than him.  Stooge fans, Max Davidson is the shop keeper whose stuff the boys destroy and calls for the police in NO CENSUS, NO FEELING.

    5/10

    Offline Umbday

    • Grapehead
    • *
    • Posts: 15
      • View Profile
    Re: Laurel and Hardy - Pre-team short reviews
    « Reply #1 on: January 26, 2015, 12:25:03 PM »
  • Publish
  • A great start, Metaldams. Looking forward to these discussions and will be contributing. (I'm late to this party, but plan to comment on select Stooges shorts as well.) Cheers.

    Offline metaldams

    • Global Moderator
    • Egghead
    • ******
    • Posts: 6,037
    • Gender: Male
    • Sugar Daddy in waiting
      • View Profile
    Re: Laurel and Hardy - Pre-team short reviews
    « Reply #2 on: January 26, 2015, 09:16:52 PM »
  • Publish
  • A great start, Metaldams. Looking forward to these discussions and will be contributing. (I'm late to this party, but plan to comment on select Stooges shorts as well.) Cheers.

    Thank you Umbday, I appreciate the compliment.  Looking forward to your contributions.  This coming weekend, before I get into the meat of the main surviving films, I will have a special little thread for HATS OFF, so be on the lookout for that.

    Offline ThumpTheShoes

    • Birdbrain
    • ****
    • Posts: 728
    • Gender: Male
    • Hot Dogs 10¢................... w/Muzzles 15¢
      • View Profile
    Re: Laurel and Hardy - Pre-team short reviews
    « Reply #3 on: January 27, 2015, 07:20:58 PM »
  • Publish
  • What a bold start to the discussions, Mr. Metaldams! I only got through "Lucky Dog" this week because of a grueling work schedule.

    I love the outdoor stuff in these early films. I dig seeing the old-timey visions of Californy-- lots of pared, manicured greenery, with just a hint of the wild and less of the over-paved, over-modernized mod-con world we have today. Those palm trees are everywhere, and seemingly ever-present, especially in the early Hal Roach pictures.

    Then there's the always scary animal stuff-- remember, back then there were no regulations for treatment of animals, and they would, often, be put through some grueling paces. There are particularly funny related gags, like Stanley not being able to tell which end is which on the little show dog.

    There's a quaint and textured charm, as well, to the film speed and exposure tricks, like the dancing angels and the under-cranked reverse acting with the rail car stopping just short of Stan. Impressive, sure, if you remember that some of the film cameras of the period were still hand cranked! Even the electric ones of the day wouldn't always have a reliable tachometer to guarantee a set film speed.

    Some of the main interior sets are quite lavish as well. Wood-blocked wall decor, plushy carpets and upholstery, swags, jabots,chandeliers, carpeted stairs, lush fringe, beads, house plants galore, doilies-- even pianos had upholstered covers.

    Musical scores for these silent films can be problematic. Simply put, for home video a silent score can make or break the picture! Personally, I severely dislike new, ultra-spaced stereo surround orchestrations with modern sound effects applied. It all sounds too new and creates an artificial soundstage for what should be a crackly, flickering intimate affair. When TCM aired the salute to Hal Roach, I remember the very repetitive, very new-sounding scores for the Little Rascals silents. All very similar to the Leroy Shield tunes, particularly the Little Rascals theme (Good Old Days) and (did I mention?) repetitive! I can still hear the percussive "tick-tock-tick-tock-tick-tock" threatening to put me to sleep, even when the action on screen sped up to fevered pace.

    Compressed, single-channel optical film sonics, or thereabouts for me and the simpler the better. Often I find that watching these films without sound to be more engaging. But I'm weird, I guess!

    I realize this has been somewhat general. I'll have more later, when I can give these and upcoming films particular attention. I do not want to sit this out.
    A jerk with a quirk may do the work. Or, a turk with a dirk may stick a clerk! Gut gesagt?

    Offline metaldams

    • Global Moderator
    • Egghead
    • ******
    • Posts: 6,037
    • Gender: Male
    • Sugar Daddy in waiting
      • View Profile
    Re: Laurel and Hardy - Pre-team short reviews
    « Reply #4 on: January 27, 2015, 09:02:27 PM »
  • Publish
  • Thump, you are absolutely correct about the angel scene in THE LUCKY DOG.  Really beautifully done and I should have mentioned it.  The short starts out OK, but it seems like a jumbled Sennett styled mess towards the end.  I literally have trouble following the action when silent comedies are too fast, a problem again I've never had watching a Buster Keaton film.

    Yes, scores make a big difference as well.  I'm not too picky on the whole modern vs. traditional thing, but it has to be pleasing to my ears. I agree repetitive scores like you mentioned can be annoying after a while.  My two favorite silent film scorers are Carl Davis and Robert Israel.  I can't watch PHANTOM OF THE OPERA without the Carl Davis score, that's how much I love that score.  Interestingly, my great grandfather, the one I said kind of resembled Kenneth MacDonald, played oboe in orchestras at movie theaters during the silent era.  He was financially hurt by the talkies.

    Take your time going through these.  I actually had a rare Saturday completely void of work, family, and friend obligations, so I got through these in a day and added my mini reviews.  It was quite a fun day.  The other films will get a thread and lengthier review all to themselves, but I figured this was a good compromise on the almost but not quite Laurel and Hardy films.  The one day thing was fun and a good way to tackle these, doing one at a time over a period of months would feel like way too slow a start.

    Offline Umbrella Sam

    • Chucklehead
    • ***
    • Posts: 183
    • Gender: Male
      • View Profile
    Re: Laurel and Hardy - Pre-team short reviews
    « Reply #5 on: April 09, 2017, 09:46:45 PM »
  • Publish
  • Well, I figured that I would start adding my two cents to the Laurel and Hardy films as well (I also might contribute to the Marx Brothers discussions, as I've seen all their films at least once, although it's been a while and I only own the first 5 on DVD, so I might wait a while). With that said, I will start by accepting your challenge of 11 mini-reviews in one post, metaldams.

    THE LUCKY DOG (1921)
    Along with CONEY ISLAND, this was one of the first silent films I ever saw, so I enjoyed it a lot when I was younger. However, while CONEY ISLAND still holds up very well, THE LUCKY DOG, unfortunately, does not. Not that it is an awful short, but it is very Keystone-esque and does not have much of a focus. Laurel at times does show signs of the character that he would perfect in the future while Hardy is more of a standard villain. That being said, that gun scene definitely shows their potential as a team and every once in a while there's a good gag thrown in.

    6 out of 10

    45 MINUTES FROM HOLLYWOOD (1926)
    To be honest, I only find the first half of this to be boring. I do think that it picks up in the second half, especially when both Hardy and Laurel show up for their separate scenes. The mix-up isn't anything special, but I do like the energy in this chase. Though, yes, I will admit that Glenn Tryon is a very uninteresting comedian. Also, it's nice to see Laurel hurt Hardy without getting any comeuppance (considering that he's the one that pushes Glenn Tryon toward him at the end). Overall, I find it to just be an average short.

    5 out of 10

    SLIPPING WIVES (1927)
    I do like this short. Laurel and Hardy do get some moments together, but overall, a lot of the comedy does comes from Laurel, who does a pretty good job carrying the short. That part with him reciting Samson and Delilah, though, goes on for a little too long and I do wish there had been a little more comedy-wise from some of the others, but it was still entertaining regardless.

    7 out of 10

    LOVE 'EM AND WEEP (1927)
    I have yet to see CHICKENS COME HOME, so I can't really compare it, but judging this on its own, I think that it's decent enough. Hardy is probably better suited for this role, but I still think James Finlayson pulls it off pretty well and Laurel's character is still very entertaining to watch. It's not perfect, as I would have liked to have seen Hardy in a more prominent role, but I still enjoyed it.

    7 out of 10

    WHY GIRLS LOVE SAILORS (1927)
    Yeah, unfortunately, I'm not really a fan of this one. Laurel and Hardy don't get much interaction and a lot of humor ends up relying on Stan in drag knocking out sailors and tricking Hardy into thinking hat they are trying to start a fight with him. Anita Garvin is always a delight to watch, but unfortunately, I don't think she can save what I consider to be a pretty boring short.

    4 out of 10

    WITH LOVE AND HISSES (1927)
    This is more like the kind of Laurel and Hardy short I'd expect. Hardy bosses Laurel around and Laurel, of course, inadvertently gets Hardy in trouble with his superior officer (James Finlayson). Laurel's awful skills as a soldier are fun to watch and overall the humor in this does feel very similar to what they'd usually do.

    8 out of 10

    SAILORS, BEWARE (1927)
    Surprisingly, considering the set-up of Hardy as Laurel's superior, they really don't interact that much. When they do, there are some funny moments such as the jump rope sequence or Hardy's reaction to the people in the pool throwing water at him. Laurel is able to carry this short on his own pretty well, such as when he keeps throwing that drunk man into the wrong room or when he falls for the can prank. It would have been nice to have seen some more interaction between him and Hardy, but for what it is, it is still really good.

    8 out of 10

    NOW I'LL TELL ONE (1927)
    There's not much to say about is one, considering that only the second reel exists. Hardy's role as a policeman is very brief while Laurel has some pretty funny moments as a clearly incompetent lawyer. Otherwise, the rest of it is Charley Chase's wife recalling how he came home drunk. The ending is incredibly rushed as well.

    Judging the second reel on its own, I'd give it a 5 out of 10

    FLYING ELEPHANTS (1927)
    I agree that this is a strange short, but I think that it's still decent. Hardy's failed attempts at getting a wife are hilarious and Laurel's character is delightful as ever. I do like the situation of both of them having to please James Finlayson even if Hardy comes in a little late. The ending with Hardy falling off the cliff is a little too grim for my liking, but I was still mildly entertained by this short.

    6 out of 10

    SUGAR DADDIES (1927)
    I didn't find this one to be that interesting unfortunately, probably because half of it is basically the gag from LOVE 'EM AND WEEP where someone stands on James Finlayson's shoulders. The exchange between Laurel, Hardy, and Laurel's hat is pretty funny and I find it so strange to see Laurel saying "A fine mess you've made of things!" (considering how a certain phrase that's similar to this would end up being used by Hardy). Not bad, but it feels repetitive (unlike THE MUSIC BOX, another one gag film).

    5 out of 10

    CALL OF THE CUCKOO (1927)
    I do like seeing Laurel, Hardy, James Finlayson, and Charley Chase together at the beginning and end (I don't know about all of you, but I would love to have the four of them as my neighbors [pie]). Otherwise, it's a pretty boring comedy as Max Davidson is not funny, making me wish that the camera had just focused on the antics of the other four.

    4 out of 10

    Offline metaldams

    • Global Moderator
    • Egghead
    • ******
    • Posts: 6,037
    • Gender: Male
    • Sugar Daddy in waiting
      • View Profile
    Re: Laurel and Hardy - Pre-team short reviews
    « Reply #6 on: April 09, 2017, 10:05:10 PM »
  • Publish
  • Well, I figured that I would start adding my two cents to the Laurel and Hardy films as well (I also might contribute to the Marx Brothers discussions, as I've seen all their films at least once, although it's been a while and I only own the first 5 on DVD, so I might wait a while). With that said, I will start by accepting your challenge of 11 mini-reviews in one post, metaldams.

    THE LUCKY DOG (1921)
    Along with CONEY ISLAND, this was one of the first silent films I ever saw, so I enjoyed it a lot when I was younger. However, while CONEY ISLAND still holds up very well, THE LUCKY DOG, unfortunately, does not. Not that it is an awful short, but it is very Keystone-esque and does not have much of a focus. Laurel at times does show signs of the character that he would perfect in the future while Hardy is more of a standard villain. That being said, that gun scene definitely shows their potential as a team and every once in a while there's a good gag thrown in.

    6 out of 10

    45 MINUTES FROM HOLLYWOOD (1926)
    To be honest, I only find the first half of this to be boring. I do think that it picks up in the second half, especially when both Hardy and Laurel show up for their separate scenes. The mix-up isn't anything special, but I do like the energy in this chase. Though, yes, I will admit that Glenn Tryon is a very uninteresting comedian. Also, it's nice to see Laurel hurt Hardy without getting any comeuppance (considering that he's the one that pushes Glenn Tryon toward him at the end). Overall, I find it to just be an average short.

    5 out of 10

    SLIPPING WIVES (1927)
    I do like this short. Laurel and Hardy do get some moments together, but overall, a lot of the comedy does comes from Laurel, who does a pretty good job carrying the short. That part with him reciting Samson and Delilah, though, goes on for a little too long and I do wish there had been a little more comedy-wise from some of the others, but it was still entertaining regardless.

    7 out of 10

    LOVE 'EM AND WEEP (1927)
    I have yet to see CHICKENS COME HOME, so I can't really compare it, but judging this on its own, I think that it's decent enough. Hardy is probably better suited for this role, but I still think James Finlayson pulls it off pretty well and Laurel's character is still very entertaining to watch. It's not perfect, as I would have liked to have seen Hardy in a more prominent role, but I still enjoyed it.

    7 out of 10

    WHY GIRLS LOVE SAILORS (1927)
    Yeah, unfortunately, I'm not really a fan of this one. Laurel and Hardy don't get much interaction and a lot of humor ends up relying on Stan in drag knocking out sailors and tricking Hardy into thinking hat they are trying to start a fight with him. Anita Garvin is always a delight to watch, but unfortunately, I don't think she can save what I consider to be a pretty boring short.

    4 out of 10

    WITH LOVE AND HISSES (1927)
    This is more like the kind of Laurel and Hardy short I'd expect. Hardy bosses Laurel around and Laurel, of course, inadvertently gets Hardy in trouble with his superior officer (James Finlayson). Laurel's awful skills as a soldier are fun to watch and overall the humor in this does feel very similar to what they'd usually do.

    8 out of 10

    SAILORS, BEWARE (1927)
    Surprisingly, considering the set-up of Hardy as Laurel's superior, they really don't interact that much. When they do, there are some funny moments such as the jump rope sequence or Hardy's reaction to the people in the pool throwing water at him. Laurel is able to carry this short on his own pretty well, such as when he keeps throwing that drunk man into the wrong room or when he falls for the can prank. It would have been nice to have seen some more interaction between him and Hardy, but for what it is, it is still really good.

    8 out of 10

    NOW I'LL TELL ONE (1927)
    There's not much to say about is one, considering that only the second reel exists. Hardy's role as a policeman is very brief while Laurel has some pretty funny moments as a clearly incompetent lawyer. Otherwise, the rest of it is Charley Chase's wife recalling how he came home drunk. The ending is incredibly rushed as well.

    Judging the second reel on its own, I'd give it a 5 out of 10

    FLYING ELEPHANTS (1927)
    I agree that this is a strange short, but I think that it's still decent. Hardy's failed attempts at getting a wife are hilarious and Laurel's character is delightful as ever. I do like the situation of both of them having to please James Finlayson even if Hardy comes in a little late. The ending with Hardy falling off the cliff is a little too grim for my liking, but I was still mildly entertained by this short.

    6 out of 10

    SUGAR DADDIES (1927)
    I didn't find this one to be that interesting unfortunately, probably because half of it is basically the gag from LOVE 'EM AND WEEP where someone stands on James Finlayson's shoulders. The exchange between Laurel, Hardy, and Laurel's hat is pretty funny and I find it so strange to see Laurel saying "A fine mess you've made of things!" (considering how a certain phrase that's similar to this would end up being used by Hardy). Not bad, but it feels repetitive (unlike THE MUSIC BOX, another one gag film).

    5 out of 10

    CALL OF THE CUCKOO (1927)
    I do like seeing Laurel, Hardy, James Finlayson, and Charley Chase together at the beginning and end (I don't know about all of you, but I would love to have the four of them as my neighbors [pie]). Otherwise, it's a pretty boring comedy as Max Davidson is not funny, making me wish that the camera had just focused on the antics of the other four.

    4 out of 10

    Nice!  Thanks.